• Pyramidal carbocation

    Besides the classical and non-classical a third class of carbonations can be distinguished: pyramidal carbocations. In these ions a single carbon atom hoovers over a four or five sided polygon in effect forming a pyramid. The four sided pyramidal ion will carry a charge of 1+, the five sided pyramid will carry 2+. In the images on the right the black spot on the vertical line represents the hovering carbon atom.
    To the novice and layman in the field the most astonishing structural fact is the apparent coordination number of five or even six associated with the carbon atom at the top of the pyramid.

    Studying these cations was sparked by at the time amazing results in computational chemistry. While calculating the optimal geometry of the monokation which arises from the extraction of chloride from 3-chloor-tricyclo(2,1,0,02,5)pentane the three bridges were expected to orient in space with angles of roughly 120°. The calculations however showed the four sided pyramide to be the most stable configuration. At the top of this pyramide there resides a carbon atom, still connected to a hydrogen. The original expected structure turned out to be not even close to an energy minimumte: it represented a maximum.
    Depending on the method used the ion 1c in figure 1 is an absolute or just a relative minimum.
    A complete theoretical discussion will use all orbitals of all contributing atoms. A first approximation might use a LCAO of the molecular orbitals in the polygon forming the base of the pyramid and the orbitals on carbon at the top of and apical atom, the carbon atom at the top of the pyramid. This approximation will provide insight in the intrinsic stability of the structures.
    The apical carbon atom only is connected to just one other substituent, so a sp-hybridisation is to be expected. The substituent will be oriented upward. Towards the basic polygon three orbitals are available:
    The approximation for the base of the pyramid is a closed ring of carbon atoms, all of them sp2 hybridisised. The exact results depend on the ring seize, over all conclusions can be formulated as:
    To obtain bonding interactions between atoms and/or parts of molecules two conditions should be met:
    The orbitals at the apical carbon and the basic polygon are able to combine with respect to their symmetries. The result will be a more stable configuration for the pyramids. In figure 2 the symmetry aspects are depicted.
    Filling the atomic and molecular orbitals in pyramidal structures of different base size leads to next table. Only bonding orbitals are accounted for.
    In case of the three sided pyramid, clearly no ion results, a known neutral species arises: tetrahedrane. To this molecule this way of description is an alternative quantum mechanical description.
    The other pyramidal structures will be charged in relation with their base size.
    4a: 3-hydroxy-1,4-dimethyl-TCP
    4b: 3-hydroxy-1,5-dimethyl-TCP
    4c: 3-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-TCP
    4d: Het resulterende carbokation
    In 1972 Masamune describes the results of dissolving a number of precursors to 4d (figure 4) at – 70°C. in superacid (a mixture of SO2ClF and FSO3H. Based on both the 13C as well as the 1H-NMR-spectrum the evidence is clear: in each case the same intermediary is formed. Also, when the super acidic medium is destroyed with either methanol or benzoic acid the same product is formed. (see: below).
    5a = 4d Pyramidal cation
    5b Reaction product with benzoic acid in diploar aprotic solvent
    5c reaction product with methanol in methanol
    As described above fotballklær 2016, independent from its synthetic route, pyramidal ion 5a reacts with methanol or benzoate giving rise to products governed by reagent and the reaction medium as is clear by the substitution patterns. In 1972 Masamune is unable to explain the different behavior of the intermediate. In terms of the HSAB-theory an explanation might be given.
    In 1975 Masamune calculated in the non-substituted ion most of the charge at the hydrogen atoms. Replacing hydrogen for carbon gucci salg, the central atom of the methyl group, a more electronegative substituent (2.5 versus 2.1 on the Pauling scale) will concentrate charge on the skeletal carbon. This charge concentration has several effects:
    According to the results presented in Table 1 a five sided pyramidal carbocation will be divalent. This is confirmed by theoretical and practical work by Hogeveen. In contrast to the monocation, which is described with several patterns of substitution, the dication is mainly studied by its hexamethyl derivative. The synthesis starts at hexamethyldewar benzene (compound I in table 4) reacting with Cl2 into 5,6-dichloro-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexamethylbicyclo[2,1,1]hex-2-ene (compound II in table 4). Disolution of this compound in fluorosulfonic acid gives rise to the dication (structure III in table 4).
    The presence of a pyramidal ion in the solution of fluorosulfonic acid is evidenced by the 1H- and 13C-NMR-spectrum (Table 5).
    The assignment of the signals is based on their intensities and multiplicities. The assignment of the pyramidal structure is based on the observed simplicity of the spectra: five equal C-CH3 groups combined with one outstanding C-CH3 group. The only way to construct a molecular entity from this data is a five sided pyramid. Rapid equilibriums between degenerated classical or non-classical carbocations are disgasrded as the position of the signals does not match the expected values for those kind of structures.
    The reactions of the dication fall apart into three groups:
    The product of the reaction of the dication with triethylamine offers a pathway to other substitution patterns then hexamethyl. One or both double bonds are oxidized to a keton. Then keton then is reacted with an organometallic compound producing an alkylated hydroxide. The compounds formed this way possess one or two other alkyl groups, depending on the number of oxidized double bonds. When the alcohols are dissolved in fluorosulfonic acid they again give rise to new pyramidal dications. Both non-methyl groups occupy basal positions. Each other position at the pyramidal skeleton still carries a methyl group. Table 6 summarizes these findings.
    Up to this point the substitution pattern of then divalent pyramidal ion is of minor importance to its behavior. A clear difference arises when the thermal stability if the ions of type V (Table 6) is studied: at -40°C the apical ethyl substituted ion is stable for 48 hours whereas no trace of the apical iso-propyl ion is detectable anymore.
    At the time of the literature survey (end of 1978) their were no reports on tervalent or higher pyramidal cations.


  • Bishopbriggs Academy

                     Tie Colours      
    Bishopbriggs Academy is a secondary school in the town of Bishopbriggs, Scotland, in the district of East Dunbartonshire. Bishopbriggs Academy is a non-denominational, co-educational, comprehensive school taking pupils from S1 to S6. It is currently one of two secondary schools in Bishopbriggs, along with Turnbull High School at Brackenbrae.
    The school was established in August 2006 as a result of the amalgamation of Bishopbriggs High School and Thomas Muir High School.
    In January 2013 the school received four “Excellent” grades and one “Very Good” in an Education Scotland Inspection Report. This was the first time ever that education Education Scotland had awarded four “Excellent” grades under the new inspection standards which ranks school on 5 areas

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    . The Inspectors also described the Academy as an ‘outstanding school’.
    In November 2014, the school was named ‘The Scottish State Secondary School of the Year’ by the Sunday Times in the Sunday Times School Guide for 2014.
    The school is consistently ranked as one of the top secondary schools in Scotland, ranking in the top 0.5% of all secondary schools in Scotland.

    The two antecedent secondary schools were originally established to meet local demand during Bishopbriggs’ housing boom beginning in the 1960s. Bishopbriggs High School was opened by Lanark County Council in 1965 and designed by Simon Pollard.
    It replaced the previous Bishopbriggs Higher Grade School which had originally opened in 1896, designed by David Woodburn Sturrock, and featured inscriptions on its clock tower, commemorating the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria that year. This catered only for pupils up to S4 with most leaving at age 15 (S3). Higher Grade pupils transferred to Lenzie Academy in Dunbartonshire. The school and its pupils appeared in an award-winning 1959 amateur film

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    , L’ Inspecteur. The former Bishopbriggs Higher Grade School building was converted into the town library after the completion of the new High School building.
    Thomas Muir High School was named after the local historical political radical, Thomas Muir, and opened in 1979, to serve the expanding Woodhill area of the town.
    Bishopbriggs High School and Thomas Muir High School merged in 2006 to form Bishopbriggs Academy as part of a £100million PPP plan to build six new secondary schools in East Dunbartonshire. The school is now situated at the site of the former Thomas Muir High School on Wester Cleddens Road, where the new campus was completed in August 2009. Prior to that, Bishopbriggs Academy had been located at the former Bishopbriggs High School buildings near Bishopbriggs Cross, which were demolished during June 2010.
    The council consultation with parents had initially resulted in an agreement that the school would be built on the Bishopbriggs High School site, however this decision was later reversed in favour of the Thomas Muir site in Woodhill, releasing the more valuable BHS site for a proposed supermarket.
    The school follows the Scottish Qualification Authorities curriculum, offering from National 3 up to Advanced Highers. The school has over 100 teachers, over 40 non-teaching staff (librarian, office staff, kitchen staff, technicians, facilities etc

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    .) and offers around 30 subjects. The school offers over 35 extra curricular activities including football, rugby, athletics, skiing, badminton, public speaking, choir, theatre, supported study, youth and philanthropy initiative (for seniors) and Duke of Edinburgh awards scheme. The school is split over three levels and has a large library offering 8000 books for borrowing and over 40 computers/laptops for study, 3 gym halls, a state of the art fitness suite with the latest gym equipment and a large number of classrooms including; 12 fully equipped science classrooms, 8 fully equipped computing suites with 20 computers in each, 5 fully equipped art classrooms, 3 fully equipped design and technology workshops, 3 fully equipped design and technology classrooms with 20 computers in each

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    , 6 designated study areas (or break-out rooms), a large dining area and two full size football/rugby fields (1 grass, 1 all weather astroturf).
    All pupils must wear school uniform each day. The Bishopbriggs Academy school uniform is as follows: black skirt or formal trousers; white shirt (buttoned to the neck) and school tie; black formal shoes; school blazer; black or dark jacket. Jewellery should be kept to a minimum. Seniors wear the same, however they wear a senior tie. The prefect blazer has blue braiding around the lapels and cuffs.
    Coordinates: 55°54′29″N 4°12′10″W / 55.90806°N 4.20278°W / 55.90806; -4.20278


  • Oberamt Göppingen

    Das Oberamt Göppingen war ein württembergischer Verwaltungsbezirk (auf beigefügter Karte #18), der 1934 in Kreis Göppingen umbenannt und 1938 um den Hauptteil des aufgelösten Kreises Geislingen zum Landkreis Göppingen vergrößert wurde. Allgemeine Bemerkungen zu württembergischen Oberämtern siehe Oberamt (Württemberg).

    Bereits im 14. Jahrhundert war die Stadt Göppingen Hauptort einer württembergischen Vogtei. Zum hieraus entstandenen altwürttembergischen Amt, ab 1758 Oberamt, Göppingen kamen ab 1806 Orte hinzu, die zuvor zum Klosteramt Adelberg oder zur Ritterschaft gehört hatten. Nachbarn des von 1818 bis 1924 dem Donaukreis zugeordneten Bezirks waren nach der Neuordnung die Oberämter Schorndorf, Welzheim, Gmünd, Geislingen, Kirchheim und Eßlingen.
    1813, nach Abschluss der Gebietsreform, setzte sich der Bezirk aus Bestandteilen zusammen, die im Jahr 1800 zu folgenden Herrschaften gehört hatten:
    Folgende Gemeinden waren 1844 dem Oberamt Göppingen unterstellt:
    1825 wurde Ottenbach von Hohenstaufen getrennt und zur selbständigen Gemeinde erhoben Wellensteyn Damenjacken 2016. Der neuen Gemeinde wurden Kitzen (von der Gemeinde Großeislingen) und einige zuvor zu Salach gehörende Höfe zugeteilt.
    1826 wurde Maitis von Hohenstaufen getrennt und zur selbständigen Gemeinde erhoben.
    1827 wurde Birenbach von Börtlingen getrennt und zur selbständigen Gemeinde erhoben Bogner Jacken Herren.
    1838 wurde St. Gotthardt, das erst seit etwa 1825 selbständige Gemeinde war, wieder nach Holzheim eingegliedert Bogner Jacket Outlet.
    1842 wurde die Gemeinde Hochdorf vom Oberamt Göppingen zum Oberamt Kirchheim versetzt.
    1850 wurde der Schafhof von Uhingen nach Albershausen umgemeindet.
    1867 wurden Bärenbach und Bärenhöfle von Ottenbach nach Salach umgemeindet.
    1926 wurde die Nassachmühle von Baiereck (Oberamt Schorndorf) nach Uhingen umgemeindet.
    1932 wurde Sulpach von Roßwälden (Oberamt Kirchheim) nach Ebersbach umgemeindet.
    1933 wurden die Gemeinden Groß- und Kleineislingen zur Stadt Eislingen/Fils zusammengeschlossen. Im selben Jahr wurde Eckwälden von Zell unter Aichelberg (Oberamt Kirchheim) nach Boll umgemeindet, außerdem der Ziegerhof von Wäschenbeuren (Oberamt Welzheim) nach Maitis fußballtrikots verkauf 2016.
    1935 wurde Niederwälden von Holzhausen nach Wangen umgemeindet.
    Die Oberamtmänner des Oberamts Göppingen ab 1806:
    Aalen | Alpeck | Backnang | Balingen | Besigheim | Biberach | Blaubeuren | Böblingen | Brackenheim | Calw | Cannstatt | Crailsheim | Ehingen | Ellwangen | Eßlingen | Freudenstadt | Gaildorf | Geislingen | Gerabronn | Gmünd | Göppingen | Hall | Heidenheim | Heilbronn | Herrenberg | Horb | Kirchheim | Künzelsau | Laupheim | Leonberg | Leutkirch | Lorch | Ludwigsburg | Marbach | Maulbronn | Mergentheim | Münsingen | Nagold | Neckarsulm | Neresheim | Neuenbürg | Nürtingen | Oberndorf | Öhringen | Ravensburg | Reutlingen | Riedlingen | Rottenburg | Rottweil | Saulgau | Schorndorf | Spaichingen | Stuttgart-Amt | Stuttgart-Stadt | Sulz | Tettnang | Tübingen | Tuttlingen | Ulm | Urach | Vaihingen | Waiblingen | Waldsee | Wangen | Weinsberg | Welzheim | Wiblingen


  • E4 European long distance path

    The E4 European long distance path or E4 path is one of the European long-distance paths. Starting at its westernmost point in Portugal it continues through Spain, France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria to end in Greece. It visits the Greek island of Crete as well as Cyprus.
    Its length is more than 10,000 km, but the route through Romania and part of Bulgaria is not yet completely defined.

    From: Tarifa, southernmost point of mainland Spain through mountains of Andalucia, Murcia and Valencia via Ronda, Alhama de Granada, Moratalla, Alcoi, Requena, Morella (GR7) 2300 km Puigcerda in Pyrenees E of Andorra Catalan coast at Ulldecona (GR8), Tarragona via Catalan coast path (GR92), Montserrat (GR172), then GR4 into Pyrenees 450 km
    Montagne Noire Via Mont Canigou and Carcassonne (GR 36), Villefort through Haut Languedoc and Cévennes (GR 71, GR 7, GR 72), Ardèche and Rhône valleys east via GR 44, GR 4, GR 42, 429, Swiss border near Geneva N through Vercors, Grenoble, Chartreuse and Culoz (GR 9) 1100 km
    Follows the Jura ridgeway through the north of the country ending at village Dielsdorf. (300 km)
    From Dielsdorf, the E4 continues along S shores of Lake Constance via following settlements to village Rheineck at German borders. (150 km)
    Niederglatt – Bülach – Freienstein-Teufen – Irchel – Buch am Irchel – Dorf – Andelfingen – Truttikon – Oberstammheim – Stein am Rhein – Mammern – Steckborn – Berlingen – Mannebach – Ermatingen – Gottlieben – Kreuzlingen – Münsterlingen – Güttingen – Uttwil – Romanshorn – Egnach – Arbon – Steinach – Tübach – Goldach – Rorschacherberg – Buchberg – Rheineck
    Alternative 1: On the route of Nordalpine Weitwanderweg 01 (Nordalpine route 01) are exposed stretches – for experienced mountain walkers only
    1. Western section of the route – 495 km through Bregenzer Wald, Lechquellengebirge

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    , Lechtaler Alps, Wetterstein-gebirge, Karwendelgebirge and Rofangebirge:
    Bregenz (440 m) – Lustenauer Hut (1250 m) – 22 km, middle difficult tour Lustenauer Hut (1250 m) – Damüls (1428 m) – 33 km, difficult tour Damüls (1428 m) – Biberacher Hut (1846 m) – 18 km, very difficult tour Biberacher Hut (1846 m) – Göppinger Hut (2245 m) – 16 km, difficult tour Göppinger Hut (2245 m) – Ravensburger Hut (2234 m) – 31 km, very difficult tour Ravensburger Hut (2234 m) – Stuttgarter Hut (2303 m) – 20 km, difficult tour Stuttgarter Hut (2303 m) – Ansbacher Hut (2376 m) – 28 km, very difficult tour Ansbacher Hut (2376 m) – Memminger Hut (2242 m), 25 km, very difficult tour Memminger Hut (2242 m) – Steinsee Hut (2040 m) – 20 km, very difficult tour Steinsee Hut (2040 m) – Anhalter Hut (2040 m) – 25 km, difficult tour Anhalter Hut (2040 m) – Fernpass (1209 m) – 35 km, difficult tour Fernpass (1209 m) – Ehrwald (994 m) – 20 km, middle difficult tour Ehrwald (994 m) – Meiler Hut (2366 m) – 39 km, difficult tour Meiler Hut (2366 m) – Scharnitz (964 m) – 30 km, middle difficult tour Scharnitz (964 m) – Falken Hut (1846 m) – 30 km, middle difficult tour Falken Hut (1846 m) – Murach am Achsensee (958 m) – 35 km, middle difficult tour Maurach am Achsensee (958 m) – Steinberg am Rofan (1010 m) – 25 km, difficult tour Steinberg am Rofan (1010 m) – Kufstein (504 m) – 43 km, easy tour
    2. Middle section of the route – 441 km through Kaisergebirge, Chiemgau Alps, Loferer Steingebirge, Hochkönig and Steinernes Meer, Tennengebirge, Dachstein Mountains and Totes Gebirge:
    Kufstein (504 m) – Stripsenjoch Haus (1580 m) – 19 km, middle difficult tour Stripsenjoch Haus (1580 m) – Straubinger Haus (1598 m) – 35 km, middle difficult tour Straubinger Haus (1598 m) – Schmidt-Zabierow Hut (1966 m) – 39 km, difficult tour Schmidt-Zabierow Hut (1966 m) – Lofer (626 m) – 16 km, middle difficult tour Lofer (626 m) – Ingolstatter Haus (2199 m) – 31 km, middle difficult tour Ingolstatter Haus (2199 m) – Riemann Haus (2177 m) – 8 km, middle difficult tour Riemann Haus (2177 m) – Franz-Eduard-Matras Haus (2941 m) – 25 km, very difficult tour on glacier Franz-Eduard-Matras Haus (2941 m) – Werfen (548 m) – 27 km, difficult tour on glacier Werfen (548 m) – Lungötz (828 m) – 33 km, middle difficult tour Lungötz (828 m) – Adamek Hut (2196 m) – 29 km, very difficult tour Adamek Hut (2196 m) – Simony Hut (2206 m) – 12 km, very difficult tour on glacier Simony Hut (2206 m) – Bad Goisern (500 m) – 32 km, middle difficult tour Bad Goisern (500 m) – Loser Hut (1497 m) – 34 km, middle difficult tour Loser Hut (1497 m) – Pühringer Hut (1638 m) – 25 km, middle difficult tour Pühringer Hut (1638 m) – Priel Refuge Hut (1422 m) – 20 km, difficult tour Priel Refuge Hut (1422 m) – Vorderstoder (660 m) – 18 km, middle difficult tour Vorderstoder (660 m) – Spital am Pyhrn (647 m) – 38 km, middle difficult tour
    3. Eastern section of the route – 478 km Through Rax, Semmeringgebiet, Bucklige Welt and Rosaliengebirge
    Spital am Pyhrn (647 m) – Admont (641 m) – 24 km, middle difficult tour Admont (641 m) – Hess Hut (1699 m) – 35 km, middle difficult tour Hess Hut (1699 m) – Radmer an der Stube (702 m) – 20 km, difficult tour Radmer an der Stube (702 m) – Eisenerz (769 m) – 20 km, middle difficult tour Eisenerz (769 m) – Sonnschien Hut (1525 m) – 25 km, middle difficult tour Sonnschien Hut (1525 m) – Voisthaler Hut (1660 m) – 1660 m) – 17 km, middle difficult tour Voisthaler Hut (1660 m) – Turnaueralm (1570 m) – 25 km, middle difficult tour Turnaueralm (1570 m) – Neuberg, Krampen im Mürztal (756 m) – 31 km, middle difficult tour Neuberg, Krampen im Mürztal (756 m) – Schneealpen Haus (1788 m) – 31 km, middle difficult tour Schneealpen Haus (1788 m) – Karl-Ludwig Haus (1803 m) – 21 km, difficult tour Karl-Ludwig Haus (1803 m) – Waxriegel Haus (1361 m) – 12 km, middle difficult tour Waxriegel Haus (1361 m) – Maria Schutz (760 m) – 30 km, middle difficult tour Maria Schutz (760 m) – Hochwolkersdorf (625 m) – 48 km, easy tour Hochwolkersdorf (625 m) – Mattersburg (256 m) – 17 km, easy tour
    After town Mattersburg the route of the E4 leaves the Nordalpine Weitwanderweg 01, and goes on other paths further.
    Mattersburg (256 m) – Rust (123 m) – 32 km, easy tour Rust (123 m) – Drassburg (234 m) – 20 km, easy tour Drassburg (234 m) – Kabersdorf (320 m) – 28 km, easy tour Kabersdorf (320 m) – Hochstrass (421 m) – 25 km, easy tour Hochstrass (421 m) – Köszeg (271 m, border crossing point in Hungary) – 17 km, easy tour
    Remark: Generally there are detours on the route of E4 to avoid the very difficult sections. You can find map sketches and description about the whole route in the book „Von Neusiedler See zum Bodensee – Nordalpiner Weitwanderweg 01” in German.
    Alternative 2: Subalpine route to: Salzburg Through Allgäu and Upper Bavaria via Neuschwanstein, Unterammergau, Bavarian Lakes (04) 550 km to: Wienerwald via Salzkammergut (04) 550 km to: Hainburg an der Donau E Austrian border path (07) 150 km
    On the route of the Országos Kéktúra (National Blue Trail) – 1118 km Through the Little Hungarian Plain and along the Transdanubian Mountains and the North Hungarian Mountains.
    Town Kőszeg (border crossing point) – peak of Irottkő – town Sárvár through the Mountains of Kőszeg and the Little Hungarian Plain – 70 km Town Sárvár – town Sümeg through the Little Hungarian Plain – 70 km Town Sümeg – town Keszthely and Lake Balaton through the Highland of Balaton – 47 km Town Keszthely – town Tapolca – village Nagyvázsony through the Basin of Tapolca and the Highland of Balaton. On the basin the path climbs almost every spent volcano: Badacsony, Gulács, Csobánc and Szent György Mountain – 83 km Village Nagyvázsony – village Városlőd – town Zirc – village Bodajk through the Bakony Mountains – 118 km Village Bodajk – village Szárliget through the Vértes Mountains – 48 km Village Szárliget – town Dorog through the Hilly Country of Gerecse – 67 km Town Dorog – Budapest through the Pilis Mountains and Mountains of Buda – 40 km Budapest – peak of Dobogókö (700 m) – village Visegrád, Danube Bend through the Buda and Pilis Mountains – 61 km Village Visegrád – village Nagymaros – with ferry across the Danube Village Nagymaros – peak of Hegyes-kö (centre mountain of Danube Bend) – village Kóspallag – peak of Csóványos (938 m) – village Nógrád through the Börzsöny Mountains – 38 km Village Nógrád – village Becske – village Hollókő, it is a World Heritage Site – village Mátraverebély through the Hilly Country of Cserhát – 119 km Village Mátraverebély – peak of Galyatetö – peak of Kékestető, 1014 m, the highest point of Hungary – village Sirok – village Szarvaskő through the Mátra Mountains – 65 km Village Szarvaskő – village Bélapátfalva – village Bánkút – village Putnok – through the Bükk Mountains – 55 km Village Putnok – village Aggtelek, its stalactite cave is a World Heritage Site – village Bódvaszilas through the Hilly Country of Aggtelek – 62 km Village Bódvaszilas – village Boldogkőváralja through the Hilly Country of Cserehát – 65 km Village Boldogkőváralja – town Sátoraljaújhely through the Zemplén Mountains – 55 km
    In Sátoraljaújhely the route of the E4 leaves the path of the National Blue Trail and goes further on the route of Blue Tour of the Plain
    On the route of Alföldi Kéktúra (Blue Tour of the Plain) – 262 km Through the Great Hungarian Plain
    Town Sátoraljaujhely – town Kisvárda – 63 km Town Kisvárda – town Nyirbátor – 46 km Town Nyirbátor – town Bánk – 75 km Town Bánk – village Nagykereki – 78 km
    After village Nagykereki the E4 leaves the path of Alföldi Kéktúra and goes to village Ártánd (border crossing point) – appr. 6 km
    Remark: You can find detailed hiker maps and travelogues about the section of the Országos Kéktúra in Hungarian in the following books: Az Országos Kéktúra Írottkötöl Budapest, Hüvösvölgyig Az Országos Kéktúra Budapest, Hüvösvölgytöl Hollóházáig
    There are websites of Hungarian hikers about the completion of the Országos Kéktúra:
    The route of the E4 through Romania is not yet clearly defined. No organization is responsible for the trail’s upkeep in Romania.
    In Bulgaria, the marked trail begins on the village square of the Sofia suburb of Dragalevtsi. It passes the terminals of the Dragalevtsi chairlift, the ski resort Aleko and the highest peak of the Vitosha mountains, Cherni Vrah

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    , and then leads down the other side of Vitosha, through the Verila hills to Rila.
    In the Rila and Pirin Mountains, it is not marked as such, but the main trail leading through those mountains, marked in red, should be followed. Coming from Verila, the trail enters Rila following the Saparevska Vada irrigation ditch. It passes through the Seven Rila Lakes area and then climbs onto the ridge passing Malyovitsa peak. It continues via the shelter Kobilino Branishte, the hut at Ribni Ezera and the hut Macedonia towards the Predel saddle which separates Rila from Pirin.
    From Predela, it reaches the main ridge of Pirin via the hut Yavorov and follows it via the three highest peaks of Pirin (Banski Suhodol, Kutelo and Vihren) and the ridge Koncheto, before descending to the Vihren refuge. It continues on the ridge until the Vinarska Porta saddle, and then runs along Tevno Lake and down the Zhelezina stream towards Pirin hut. From there it is the only marked trail leading through the Central Pirin range, passing the peak Orelyak and the hut Popovi Livadi. It ends at Petrovo near the Greek border, where a bus to Kulata on the border can be taken. Total length within Bulgaria is 250 km.
    There is little up-to-date information available on E4 through Greece, and while a route exists from the Bulgarian border to the foot of the Peloponnese peninsula, it may inadequately way marked. E4 continues, via ferry from Yithio (Gythio), through Crete. E4 had originally been planned to start out from the Republic of Macedonia rather than Bulgaria.
    The Greek National Tourist Office suggest that: “The E4 is ideal for hiking from May 15 until early October”. However, the north can still be rainy in May, and it should be more settled in Central Greece and the Peloponnese by early May. Also snow may be a problem on Mt Olympus until mid-June (Cicerone Guide) and possibly other high places. The Tourist Office comments further: “The areas have a typical Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and considerable differences in day and night temperatures. Snowfall starts in November and snow is likely to linger into June”.
    A walk can take longer than anticipated because of poor way marking, or because paths are blocked, or dangerously eroded, and streams and rivers may be impassable. Walkers should therefore be prepared for long diversions, and never presume that you will reach the intended destination, including the final one, on time, or on a specific day. Flexible planning is advisable. Some sections follow paved roads, but there should be little traffic

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    , in the spring and autumn.
    Accommodation is not available every night, so that lightweight camping, or bivouac gear, is necessary, as well as several days supply of food. Bears, are found in the far north of Greece, so that the safely guidelines for hiking in bear country, should be followed, especially with regard to the storing of food. The Cicerone guide offers invaluable advice on sleeping and eating. In spring, in some areas, there may be springs and/or fast flowing streams, though ample reserves of water should still be carried. With regard to accommodation maps should not be trusted and even if there is a hotel it may only open in July and August, or at weekends. Mountain refuges may not be open. Coffee shops may provide simple meals. Some mountain villages are uninhabited in the winter and will only begin to come alive again after Easter, and not fully until high summer.
    The Hellenic Federation of Mountaineering and Climbing is the organisation, along with associated clubs, which has established and maintains E4, and it has published a leaflet about E4 with text in English, French and German, as well as descriptions of E4 and E6, with maps, in English and German.
    An overview of walking in Greece, including sections of E4, can be found in The Mountains of Greece by Tim Salmon and there is a guide book in German to the E.4 in the Peloppnnes by Rolf Roost (see bibliography). However, additional, current local information should be sought whenever possible
    Maps from Anavasi cover much of the route and some can be bought with a guide book, including the Taygetos 1:50,000 sheet.
    From Kulata (Bulgaria) the way crosses the border to Promachon (Promachonas). The route was originally planned to cross from the Republic of Macedonia to Florina.
    See the Oreivatein web pages for fuller details. There is a separate more detailed page for the section from the Bulgarian border to Florina.
    Aluminum signs: on white background a yellow Rombus with black frameworks

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    , in which stands with black writing E4/6. Color-signs on rocks and trees: white background, a yellow parallelogram on the left and a black on the right.
    Because of the transliteration from the Greek alphabet, the spelling of place names can be confusing (some places also have an official and a local, or old, name).
    Promachon (Promachonas), Rodhopoli, Doirani, Archangelos, Pella, Loutraki, Skopos, Florina (300 km).
    Nymphaeo, Amyntaeo (Amyndeo), Rizomata, Dion, Litochoro (Litohoro), Olympus, Kokkinopilos, Meteora, Agrafa, Krassochori, Viviani (Viniani).
    Karpenissi, Artotina], Kaloskopi, Delfi (Delphi), Itea (900 km, from Florina)
    Diakofto, Kalavryta, Vytina, Tripoli, Sparti, Mystras, Refuge of Taygetos, Kastania, Gythio[n] (Yithio) (300 km). Ferry to Kastelli Kissamou, Crete.
    See the web pages below for details of routes in Crete. There are in addition guide books listed in the bibliography above.
    This new section of the E4 was inaugurated in 2005, and is 539 km long. It connects Larnaka and Pafos international airports, traversing the Troodos mountain range and Akamas peninsula. A brochure has been published by the Cyprus Tourist Organisation (for online information, see external links above).
    In 2014 the Orientaction club has produced 1/25000 hiking maps of the mountainous region of Cyprus which include a large part of the E4 trail.


  • Christian Schwarzenegger

    Christian Schwarzenegger (* 11 funktional Bogner. November 1959 in Zürich) ist ein Schweizer Rechtswissenschafter und Professor für Strafrecht Neueste Bogner Skijacken Online Shop, Strafverfahrensrecht und Kriminologie an der Universität Zürich.
    Er ist Sohn eines österreichischen Musikers und späteren Ingenieurs funktional Bogner, der in den 1950er Jahren aus der Steiermark in die Schweiz einwanderte. Der Vater von Christian Schwarzenegger ist ein Cousin von Arnold Schwarzenegger Bogner Jacken Sale, dem Schauspieler und ehemaligen Gouverneur von Kalifornien. Christian Schwarzenegger ist in Zürich aufgewachsen. Er ist seit 1986 verheiratet und hat einen Sohn.
    Grundlagenfächer: Babusiaux | Ernst | Mahlmann | Senn | Thier
    Zivilrecht und Zivilverfahrensrecht: Breitschmid | Büchler | Haas | Heiss | Huguenin | Jakob | Meier | Oberhammer | Portmann | Schnyder
    Strafrecht: Donatsch | Jositsch | Killias | Schwarzenegger | Tag | Wohlers
    Handels- und Wirtschaftsrecht: Alexander | Heinemann | Hilty | Nobel | Sethe | Vogt | von der Crone | Weber
    Öffentliches Recht: Auer | Biaggini | Diggelmann | Gächter | Griffel | Jaag | Kaufmann | Keller | Kiener | Kley | Reich | Simonek | Uhlmann


  • Joseph Duval-Jouve

    Joseph Duval-Jouve, gebürtig Joseph Duval, (7 Discount Nike Strumpf Steckdose 2016. August 1810 in Boissy-Lamberville; † 25. August 1883 in Montpellier) war ein französischer Botaniker. Sein offizielles botanisches Autorenkürzel lautet „Duval-Jouve“.
    Den Nachnamen Duval-Jouve legte er sich nach seiner Heirat zu. Er unterrichtete zunächst 1832 bis 1852 am College in Grasse (ab 1846 als Nachfolger seines Schwiegervaters Jouve als Direktor) und war danach Schulinspektor in Algerien (1852), Straßburg (1854) und Montpellier (1868 bis 1873). Zuletzt geriet er in Schwierigkeiten da er antiklerikal und pro-darwinistisch eingestellt war.
    Duval-Jouve spezialisierte sich auf Süßgräser und Schachtelhalme 2015 Rabatt adidas Trikots online. Der übrig gebliebene Rest seines Herbarium kam an die Universität Montpellier billige adidas Fußball Jerseys. Die Gattung von Süßgräsern Jouvea ist ihm zu Ehren benannt. Er war Mitglied der Société des sciences naturelles de Strasbourg (1865) 2016 fußballtrikots.
    Er war nach seinem Ausscheiden aus dem Staatsdienst im Stadtrat von Montpellier und schrieb über Lokalgeschichte.
    Er war der Vater des Histologen und Professors an der Sorbonne Mathias-Marie Duval (1844–1907).


  • The Gentleman in Black

    The Gentleman in Black is a two-act comic opera written in 1870 with a libretto by W. S. Gilbert and music by Frederic Clay. The “musical comedietta” opened at the Charing Cross Theatre on 26 May 1870. It played for 26 performances, until the theatre closed at the end of the season. The plot involves body-switching, facilitated by the magical title character. It also involves two devices that Gilbert would re-use: baby-switching and a calendar oddity.
    Produced soon after Gilbert first met Arthur Sullivan, but before the two had collaborated, Gilbert’s first full-length comic opera, The Gentleman in Black, was based on the theatrically popular theory of metempsychosis. Gilbert and Frederic Clay had collaborated previously on a one-act opera, Ages Ago. The music was not published and is now lost. The piece was never revived, although modern performances have been given, fitting music by Sullivan to the Gilbert lyrics.
    The libretto is included in Original Plays by W. S. Gilbert in Four Series, in the fourth volume in the series (1911) published by Chatto and Windus of London.

    From the mid-1860s through the early 1870s, W. S. Gilbert was extremely productive, writing a large quantity of comic verse, theatre reviews and other journalistic pieces, short stories, and dozens of plays and comic operas. His output in 1870 alone included dozens of his popular comic Bab Ballads; two blank verse comedies, The Princess and The Palace of Truth; two comic operas

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    , Our Island Home and The Gentleman in Black; and various other short stories, comic pieces, and reviews appearing in various periodicals and newspapers. In 1871 he was even busier, producing seven plays and operas.
    Gilbert’s dramatic writing during this time was evolving from his early musical burlesques. Some of his work during this period exhibited a more restrained style, exemplified by a series of successful “fairy comedies”, such as The Palace of Truth (1870). At the same time, he was developing his unique style of absurdist humour, described as “Topsy-Turvy”, made up of “a combination of wit, irony, topsyturvydom, parody, observation, theatrical technique, and profound intelligence”. The opera The Gentleman in Black, one of Gilbert’s most absurdist pieces, dates from the middle of this period, when Gilbert was trying different styles and working towards the mature comic style of his later work 2016 maje clothing, including the famous series of Gilbert and Sullivan operas.
    The story of The Gentleman in Black contains early glimpses of some of the “Topsy Turvy” ideas that Gilbert would later use in his more famous works written with Arthur Sullivan, including the switching of infants who grow up to be different ages (as in H.M.S. Pinafore) and plot devices that depend on technical errors involving the calendar (as in The Pirates of Penzance). The music was in an “Offenbachian” vein, and the story is a “dramatic variation of the pseudo-German supernatural tale, such as Dickens’s ‘The Baron of Grogswig'”, “The Metapsychosis” or Gilbert’s own “The Triumph of Vice”.
    The opera is set in 1584 with Act I in the Market Place of a German Village and Act II at the Gates of Castle Schlachenschloss.
    Bertha Pompopplesdorf, who considers herself the prettiest girl in the village, is engaged to Hans Gopp, a handsome, kindly, but simple villager (Gopp was originally played by a woman). Hans is jealous of the rich, but ugly, old and unpleasant Baron Otto von Schlachenstein, who is strangely attractive to women. The Baron woos Bertha. Bertha pretends to be in love with the Baron to teach Hans a lesson. Depressed by this, Hans wishes that he could swap places with the Baron. At the same time, the Baron, realising that Bertha is just using him, envies Hans and wants to swap places with him. The Gentleman in Black (the King of the Gnomes) has the power to transfer souls. He offers to make the two men’s wishes come true by exchanging their souls and bodies for one month. The date is 13 August 1584, and so the souls will revert to their original bodies on 13 September

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    . He utters this spell:
    After the souls are transferred, Hans notices that Bertha is attracted to his former body, which now contains the Baron’s soul. Hans is now rich, but he is old and ugly, with a large family. To the Baron, the attention of Bertha and the advantages of a younger body are not sufficient compensation for the life of poverty that he now must live. He devises a cunning plan. He tells Hans that, as babies, they were both nursed by Hans’s mother, and that the peasant baby was jealous of the young Baron.
    “One night – the babes were three weeks old, and were wonderfully alike – the peasant’s babe crept from his clothes basket, quietly removed the sleeping Baron from his sumptuous cradle, placed the Baron’s son in the clothes basket, and creeping into the Baron’s cradle, covered himself up and went to sleep. The cheat was never discovered! The peasant’s son was brought up as the young Baron – the young Baron as the peasants son.”
    Hans: “But I think you must be mistaken, for you are twenty years older than I am.”
    Hans signs a contract agreeing to these facts and stipulating that they should resume their original social positions immediately. So Hans becomes a peasant in the old Baron’s body but assumes that he will be a youthful Baron beginning on 13 September. However, this is all a trick so that the Baron can immediately regain his baronial station. By 13 September, he says, “I shall destroy the paper, and prove by the fact that I am twenty years older than he is, it’s utterly impossible we could have been changed at birth – I shall return to my rank, and he will be punished as an impostor.” But an announcement is made before the Baron puts his plan into action:
    “Proclamation! Whereas certain irregularities have crept into the calendar in the course of the last 1584 years kate spade uk outlet 2016, and whereas these irregularities (although in themselves unimportant), constitute in the aggregate a considerable space of time, be it enacted, and it is hereby enacted, that from this date forward, thirteen days be omitted from the calendar, whereby this third day of September under the Old Style becomes the thirteenth day of September under the New Style!”
    The result of this imperfectly calculated proclamation is that the Baron and Hans find themselves immediately in their original bodies. Hans and Bertha begin a life of youthful nobility, and the Baron is left an ugly, old peasant.


  • Victor Kahn

    Victor Kahn (Russian: Виктор Кан; 1889, Moscow – 6 October 1971, Nice) was a Russian–French chess master.
    He was born in Moscow but left Russia in 1912 eventually ending up in France going via Sweden, Denmark and Germany. He won the Copenhagen Championship in 1916. He also played at Hamburg 1916. He tied for 8-9th at Copenhagen 1918 Cheap Sandro Clothing.
    After World War I, he tied for 1st-2nd at Haarlem 1919. He took 10th at Paris 1920 (Frederic Lazard won). In 1921, he took 3rd in Utrecht (Quadrangular; Adolf Olland won). In 1922, he tied for 2nd-3rd in Paris (André Muffang won). In 1923, Kahn won in Paris (Cercle Philidor Tournament).
    In 1924, he tied for 4-7th in Paris (Eugene Znosko-Borovsky won). In 1925, he tied for 5-7th in Paris City Championship (Abraham Baratz and Vitaly Halberstadt won), took 4th in Scarborough (Max Romih won), tied for 1st-2nd with Bertrand in Paris world cup soccer jerseys 2016. In 1926 Free People Online Sale, he tied for 3rd-4th in Paris Championship (Leon Schwartzmann won), tied for 3rd-4th in Paris (Peter Potemkine and Halberstadt won), tied for 5-6th in Scarborough (Alexander Alekhine won), and took 3rd in Paris Baratz won). In 1927, he tied for 8-9th in Paris Championship (Baratz won). In 1930, he tied for 3-5th in Paris Championship (Josef Cukierman won).
    After settling in Nice, he acquired French citizenship. In 1932, he took 9th in La Baule (11th FRA-ch; Maurice Raizman won). In 1933, he tied for 3rd-4th in Sarreguemines (12th FRA-ch; Aristide Gromer won). In 1934, he won the 13th French Championship in Paris, tied for 1st-2nd with Raizman in 16th Paris Championship, and took 2nd sleeveless dress, behind Znosko-Borovsky, in Nice. In 1935 he lost a match against Spanish player Ramon Rey Ardid (+0 –2 =4) in Zaragoza, he tied for 1st-2nd with George Koltanowski in Mollet. In 1937, he took 3rd in Nice (Quadrangular; Alekhine won), and took 3rd in Toulouse (16th FRA-ch; Gromer and Amédée Gibaud won). In 1938, he took 4th in Nice (17th FRA-ch; Raizman and Gromer won).
    Kahn played in several Chess Olympiads. He represented Russia in 1st unofficial Chess Olympiad at Paris 1924, and played for France four times.


  • Gare centrale de Prague

    Géolocalisation sur la carte : République tchèque
    Géolocalisation sur la carte : Prague
    La gare centrale de Prague (en tchèque : Praha hlavní nádraží, également appelée Praha Wilsonovo nádraží) est la plus grande et la plus importante gare ferroviaire de Prague.

    La gare a été inaugurée le 14 décembre 1871 et nommée « gare François-Joseph » en l’honneur de l’empereur François-Joseph Ier. Le hall de la gare a été construit entre 1901 et 1909, par l’architecte tchèque Josef Fanta nike soccer jerseys 2016 outlet. La station a été prolongée d’une nouvelle aérogare construite entre 1972 et 1979. Sa reconstruction 2016 soccer jerseys en ligne, démarrée en 2006, prendra fin en 2012 maillots de football 2016 sale.
    Des passages de cet article sont obsolètes ou annoncent des événements désormais passés. Améliorez-le ou discutez des points à vérifier. Vous pouvez également préciser les sections à actualiser en utilisant {{section à actualiser}}.

    La gare est une plaque tournante du transport international (trains en direction des villes de Munich, Nuremberg, Berlin, Dresde, Hambourg et vers la Pologne, la Slovaquie, la Hongrie, les Pays-Bas, la Serbie et la Croatie). Ils sont exploités par des trains express et des Pendolino.
    En plus des services internationaux, les trains desservent la plupart des grandes villes tchèques, comme Brno, Plzeň, České Budějovice et Olomouc crampons de football de puma pas cher.
    La gare est desservie par le métro de Prague (ligne C), et de nombreuses lignes de tramway devant la gare.
    Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :


  • Meta-Element

    Das Meta-Element (unspezifisch bzw. falsch oft als Meta-Tag bezeichnet) dient in HTML- oder XHTML-Dokumenten zur Angabe von Metadaten. Es wird als leeres Element innerhalb des head-Elements notiert.

    Die Metadaten werden im Kopf-Bereich eines HTML-Dokuments, also im head-Element, notiert.
    Es existieren verschiedene Metadaten-Schemata, teils von Institutionen oder Gremien erarbeitet (zum Beispiel Dublin Core), teils aber auch wild gewachsene Arten wie Einträge der Erzeuger-Software (zum Beispiel Hersteller und Version). Die wenigsten dieser Metainformationen werden von User Agents (zum Beispiel Browsern oder Suchrobotern) interpretiert. Die Beachtung durch den User Agent hängt, wie bei allen HTML-Elementen, von den Fähigkeiten und der Konfiguration desselben ab.
    Metadaten sollen vor allem die Durchsuchbarkeit des World Wide Web bzw. einer einzelnen Website verbessern. Außerdem lassen sich mithilfe von Metadaten spezielle Anweisungen zur Steuerung der Suchroboter von Suchmaschinen notieren. Einst galten Metadaten als Geheimwaffe, um bei einer Suchmaschine möglichst weit oben gelistet zu werden. Die Metadaten wurden daher lange missbraucht, um irreführende Schlagwörter anzugeben (vgl 2016 fußballschuh. Keyword-Stuffing). Mittlerweile legen die Suchmaschinen wieder mehr Wert auf den eigentlichen Textinhalt einer Webseite, den auch der Leser im Browser wahrnimmt, und ignorieren Meta-Angaben weitestgehend bzw. lassen diese nicht mehr in das Ranking der Seite einfließen Wellensteyn Jacken outlet.
    Im Web finden sich unzählige „Meta-Tag-Generatoren“, die jedoch mit zumeist veralteten oder inflexiblen Zusammenstellungen von Meta-Angaben arbeiten und damit nur für wenige Anwendungsfälle geeignet sind.
    Die nachfolgenden Code-Beispiele verwenden XML-kompatible Syntax – im Falle von HTML 4.01 darf das Element hingegen nicht mit einem Schrägstrich geschlossen werden.


    Alternativ kann auch:

    verwendet bzw. auf den Code ganz verzichtet werden.




    Meta-Elemente können Informationen enthalten, die auch in Kopfzeilen der HTTP-Kommunikation vom Server zum Client (z. B. einem Webbrowser) übertragen werden. Die Daten können bereits vor dem Erzeugen der HTTP-Antwort vom Webserver gelesen und in die Kopfzeilen eingebaut werden. Ist eine Information im HTTP-Header enthalten, ist dieser einer gegebenenfalls abweichenden Angabe in einem Meta-Element des Clients vorzuziehen.

    Um beim Aufruf einer Seite zu einer anderen URL weiterzuleiten (engl. forwarding), kann der refresh-Wert genutzt werden. Über das content-Attribut kann weiterhin eine Zeit gesetzt werden, bis die Weiterleitung erfolgt, z. B. um den Anwender noch auf den Grund für die Weiterleitung hinzuweisen: